連帯経済

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2009年12月21日 (月) 19:43時点におけるMiguel (トーク | 投稿記録)による版 (ページの作成: {{書きかけ項目}} 連帯経済(仏économie solidaire、西economía solidaria、葡economia solidária、英solidarity economy)とは、連帯・共存共栄および…)
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連帯経済(仏économie solidaire、西economía solidaria、葡economia solidária、英solidarity economy)とは、連帯・共存共栄および協力という原則およびその実践に基づいた、新しい開発の枠組みであり、国籍/民族/人種/社会階層/性別に関係なく平等で、市場原理主義や利益ではなく社会福利や持続可能性、社会的・経済的な民主制および多様性を追求する草の根からの実践例の総称である。

定義

approach encompassing initiatives in most sectors of the economy. This alternative approach to socio-economic development operates side by side with the market economy and is capable of sustaining its initiatives and competing in the market logic of traditional markets for as long as its approaches continue to be innovativ.
Definitions of "solidarity economy" are diverse.

For the Chantier Economie Sociale (Quebec)

The Chantier Economie Sociale of Quebec cites five key principles to distinguish solidarity economy initiatives. These are:

(1) the objective is to serve its members or the community, instead of simply striving for financial profit;

(2) the economic enterprise is autonomous of the State;

(3) in its statute and code of conduct, a democratic decision-making process is established that implies the necessary participation of users and workers;

(4) it gives priority to people and work over capital in the distribution of revenue and surplus; and

(5) its activities are based on principles of participation, empowerment, and individual and collective responsibility.

Solidarity Economy adopts conscious altruism and solidarity, not extreme individualism, as the core of the new socioeconomic culture. It tends to favor cooperation, not competition, as the main form of relationship among humans and between them and Nature [1]/.

For the Asian Alliance for Solidarity Economy

Solidarity Economy is a socio-economic order and new way of life that deliberately chooses serving the needs of people and ecological sustainability as the goal of economic activity rather than maximization of profits under the unfettered rule of the market. It places economic and technological development at the service of social and human development rather than the pursuit of narrow, individual self-interest.

Solidarity Economy is an alternative economic model to neo-liberal capitalism. This alternative socio-economic order and new way of life inspires attitudes and behaviors with values such as sharing, co-responsibility, Reciprocity, Plurality, respect for diversity, freedom, equality, ethics, brotherhood, and sisterhood [2]/

For John Samuel (India)

“Solidarity Economy” is one of terms used to describe all those economic activities and regulations which are based upon cooperation and solidarity, so as to place human beings and social relationships back at the core of the economic activities. There are other names being used for the initiatives of a growing number of individuals, companies and cooperatives who have decided to integrate ethical, social and environmental principles to their daily economic activity.

In Asia, titles like “People’s Economy”, “Compassionate Economy” or “Solidarity-based economy” are often heard. Regardless of the way we call it, Solidarity Economy is a growing option for all those who choose to operate within the market but with a completely different approach, those who believe that economic activity should not be exclusively driven by competition and profit maximization. Instead, the motivation for economic activity should be the improvement of the quality of life of all human beings.

In practice, there are Solidarity Economy activities in all regions of the world and in all phases of the economic cycle:

are some examples of these activities. A whole body of economic thought and beliefs have emerged as a consequence, as for example the belief that wealth should be redefined in order to integrate social and environmental externalities and, thus, to be measured by a whole different set of indicators.

Editors' note: the inclusion of corporate social responsibility in the field of solidarity economy is controversial many cultural contexts where solidarity economy emerged as a movement.


[1] Cited in Yvon Poirer. “Views on Solidarity Economy”. Interview conducted in conjunction with the Asian Forum for Solidarity Economy, Phiippines, Oct 2007. Poirer is a Member of the Coordination Committee of the North American Network for Solidarity Economy (NANSE), and Board Member of RIPESS (Intercontinental Network for the Promotion of the Solidarity Economy).

[2] Marcos Arruda. “Views on Solidarity Economy”. Interview conducted in conjunction with the Asian Forum for Solidarity Economy, Phiippines, Oct 2007. Arruda is founder and Director of PACS (Institute of Alternative Policies for Southern Cone of Latin America), Brazil and Member of the Coordination and Facilitation Committee (CFC) of the Alliance for a Responsible, Plural and Solidarity-based Economy (ALOE).

[3] Kyoko Sakuma. ““Views on Solidarity Economy”. Interview conducted in conjunction with the Asian Forum for Solidarity Economy, Phiippines, Oct 2007. Sakuma is the Founder and Executive Director of Sustainability Analysis and Consulting (Belgium).


A more formal definition:

The solidarity economy can be seen a) as part of the "Third sector" in which economic activity is aimed at expressing practical Solidarity with disadvantaged groups of people, which contrasts with the Private sector, where economic activity is aimed at generating profits, and the Public sector, where economic activity is directed at Public policy objectives, or b) as a struggle seeking to build an economy and culture of solidarity beyond capitalism in the present.

The still evolving term "solidarity economy" is an English translation of a concept represented by the French "économie solidaire" and similar terms in several other languages. As such it is sometimes translated by other expressions such as "solidarity-based economy".

社会的連帯経済

The solidarity economy is often considered part of the Social economy, forming what might be termed the "social and solidarity economy" (from the French "économie sociale et solidaire"). The concepts are still under development and the difference between the two terms is gradually being clarified. An organisation seeing itself as part of the solidarity economy generally goes beyond achieving purely social aims: it aims to put right an injustice by expressing solidarity. For example, a local sports club has a social aim and so can be considered part of the social economy, but would not normally be considered part of the solidarity economy except in special circumstances (e.g. a township sports club in South Africa in the days of Apartheid).

内部リンク: 連帯経済ネットワーク

運動としての連帯経済の起源および発展

Section to come soon!

連帯経済組織の例

参考文献

外部リンク

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